Why High Temperature Incineration is vital
Why hazardous waste incineration was developed as a separate industry?
- Increasing industrial production and increasing hazardous waste volumes
- The chemical industry developed rotary kilns (High Temperature Waste Incineration Plants) as a sustainable technology to treat their hazardous waste - as opposed to landfill
Beginning of 1970s - 2000
- Industry & public authorities become aware of the environmental advantages of the rotary kiln technology
- Increase of hazardous waste incineration plants across Europe & continuous improvement of the technology
- There are various incineration technologies available (eg. grate furnaces, fluidised beds or rotary kilns) for various waste streams (eg. non-haz/haz waste, sludges)
- Each technology has its advantages; specialised experts select the right treatment for every waste stream, based on its composition and properties
- For hazardous waste, the high temperature rotary kiln is usually selected, because of its unprecedented capacity of destroying hazardous waste (components) and extensive flue gas cleaning systems
What is special about hazardous waste incineration?
A rotary kiln incinerates waste at temperatures between 1000°C and 1300°C. The incineration happens on a surface of liquid slags in a rotating furnace.
There are three crucial parameters for adequate treatment of hazardous waste: Time-Temperature-Turbulence; these parameters are related to Type of Waste and Throughput. The volume of waste inside the kiln, combined with continuous movement during a specific time at specific high temperatures ensures that all waste is incinerated fully. There are adjustable conditions within the rotary kiln to suit the consistency of waste and its contamination rate. Specially skilled operators control and regulate these parameters and use the technology to its best effect. Highly advanced flue gas cleaning systems keep the emissions to a minimum, usually well below EU emission norms.
There are various feeding systems available, for each type of waste, e.g. solid, liquid, gases and drums. Usually, there are special unloading/feeding systems for especially hazardous waste. Toxic, Corrosive, Mutagenic or other extreme dangerous waste streams can be connected directly to the rotary kiln.
All High Temperature Incineration Plants for hazardous waste meet all requirements of the Seveso criteria (Plant, Equipment, Security and Staff).
The net energy of the incineration process is used to supply internal or external energy demands.
What happens during the Hazardous Waste incineration process?
Heavy Metals are precipitated within the slag (vitrified) or within the flue gas cleaning system.
Volatile metals like Mercury or Arsenic are precipitated or absorbed by chemical or physical treatment.
- High contents of Halogens or Sulphur are captured and chemically converted.