Undesireable Treatment Options

The waste management infrastructure in Europe is more advanced than that in other regions of the world. For example, in low-income countries, it is estimated that over 90% of waste is mismanaged (World Bank report, 2018). Approximately one-third of solid waste is openly dumped or burned. This generates more emissions than necessary and increases the risk of disaster - especially since no difference is made between haz or non-haz waste.

Next to this worst–case scenario (openly dumping or burning, without adequate flue gas cleaning systems), there are other practices that Europe considers inferior to controlled incineration or well-managed landfills. They are to be avoided and will only be permitted for very controllable waste & well-argued situations (e.g. storage of waste in salt mines). 

Other practices outside Europe include so-called ocean and atmospheric assimilation, underground injection, waste piles, surface impoundments and disposal in arid regions.